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How's LCD display works?

A Liquid crystal display is a passive device, which means it doesn't produce any light to display characters, images, video and animations.  But it simply alters the light traveling through it.  The internal construction of LCD describes how the light altered when it passes through it in order to produce any characters, images etc.

LCD panels can be categorized as flat-panel displays. What makes them distinct from other display technologies is the layer of liquid crystal material within. In this thin layer, liquid crystal molecules are aligned between two glass substrates. On the inner surfaces of each of those substrates lie electrodes that control charge carriers like electrons that then interact with the liquid crystals, creating an electric field that runs through them; this, in turn, can change the alignment of the crystals, also changing the overall behavior of the molecules. On the opposite sides of the substrate, polarizers are used to control the levels of light passage, affecting the overall image of the display.

One feature of liquid crystals is that they're affected by electric current. A particular sort of nematic liquid crystal, called twisted nematics (TN), is naturally twisted. Applying an electric current to these liquid crystals will untwist them to varying degrees, depending on the current's voltage. LCDs use these liquid crystals because they react predictably to electric current in such a way as to control light passage.

Unlike CRT monitors, LCD monitors cannot illuminate themselves, and so they require a light source: the backlight. This backlight is most frequently made of the well-known LEDs which stand for light-emitting diodes. Sourced from the backlight, light is moved through the back polarizer and back substrate, into the liquid crystals. Now, the light waves can behave in a variety of ways. Backlight used in LCD displays can be LED (Light Emitting Diode) backlight or CCFL (Cold Cathode Fluorescent Lamp) backlight. LED backlights use less power which becomes more popular, while CCFL is lower cost for large size LCD displays such as large LCD TV. Recently, quantum dots technology is used to increase the LCD contrast.

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