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The Properties of Liquid Crystal Materials for TFT LCD Screens

Views: 216     Author: Reshine Display     Publish Time: 2024-01-30      Origin: Site

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The Properties of Liquid Crystal Materials for TFT LCD Screens

Many people are familiar with the characteristics of TFT LCD screens, but do you know what the material used to make them is? Today, we will teach you about the properties of TFT LCD screen materials.


With the rapid development of TFT array-driven liquid crystal display technology, TFT LCD has not only occupied the high-end display market, such as portable notebook computers but has also challenged the desktop display due to improved manufacturing processes and cost reduction. The use of low-viscosity liquid crystal materials greatly improves the response speed, which can meet the requirements of video image display. The TFT array directly drives the liquid crystal molecules, eliminating the cross-distortion effect and increasing the display information capacity. TN-type and STN-type liquid crystal displays have therefore advanced significantly in comparison to TFT displays and are now considered to be among the most promising display technologies of the twenty-first century.


1. Features of TFT LCD screen materials:

TFT differs from conventional liquid crystal material, although it likewise uses the TN-type electro-optic effect principle. TFT LCD materials need to have a broad operating temperature range, strong physical and chemical stability, and the following qualities:


(1) Low viscosity: to meet the requirements for quick response, the viscosity should be less than 35 mPa 8226/s at 20°C.


(2) Low threshold voltage (Vth) to minimize power consumption and accomplish low voltage drive.


(3) High resistivity is a requirement for LCD materials, with a voltage holding ratio (V.H.R.) of at least 1012·826cm.


(4) To achieve a wider field of vision and higher contrast, the optical anisotropy (Δn) is matched to the TFT. The acceptable range for the △n value is 0.07–0.11.


TN-type LCD screens are currently the least desirable TFT LCD screen material because of the following: the market demand is steadily declining, the production capacity is excessive, the price competition is intense, and the screens have no investment value. The market will continue to demand STN-type LCDs, the production technology will be fully developed, and the product will progressively approach maturity. With a new phase of rapid expansion and a sharp rise in market demand, TFT-type LCDs are predicted to rank among the most promising display materials of the twenty-first century.


TN and STN LCDs have made extensive use of liquid crystal materials whose end groups are cyano groups, such as biphenyl and phenylcyclohexane liquid crystals; however, their viscosity is higher than that of liquid crystals containing fluorine and have the same molecular structure. This compound's use in TFT LCDs is restricted by these unfavorable factors. The ester liquid crystal exhibits a broad variety, a wide phase transition range, and a straightforward synthesis method; however, the high viscosity significantly lowers the dosage in TFT formulation. Thus, the main goal of liquid crystal chemistry research is now to create new liquid crystal compounds that satisfy the aforementioned specifications.


From biphenyl nitrile, esters, oxygen-containing heterocyclic benzenes, and pyrimidine ring liquid crystal compounds to cyclohexyl (bi) benzene, diphenylacetylene, ethyl bridge bonds, and various fluorine-containing aromatic ring liquid crystal compounds, the liquid crystal materials have advanced quickly alongside the development of liquid crystal devices. Difluoroethylene liquid crystal compounds with a stable molecular structure that consistently satisfies STN and TFT LCD performance requirements have been synthesized in Japan.


2. The Crucial TFT Display Screen Parameters

An active matrix LCD powered by a thin film transistor (TFT) is called a TFT display screen. It is primarily made up of planes, dots, lines, and backlights produced by liquid crystal molecules stimulated by current. These days, 144Hz refresh rate e-sports display screens—which have emerged as the primary product for gamers—are drawing more and more attention and meeting growing demands for TFT screens. What then are the crucial parameters for TFT displays? Come with me as we examine!


2.1 The crucial TFT display screen parameters: resolution

Currently, the standard TFT display screen has a resolution of 1920 x 1080 (1080P); however, other options include 2560 x 1440 (2K) and 3840 x 2160 (4K).


2.2 The crucial TFT display screen parameters: size

The diagonal length of the display component, measured in inches (1 inch = 2.54cm), determines the size of the TFT LCD screen. The actual area is proportional to the square of the diagonal length when the aspect ratio is the same.


2.3 The crucial TFT display screen parameters ----reaction time

The TFT display screen's response time, or how quickly it responds to an input signal, is commonly expressed in milliseconds (ms). The clarity of the image without the game screen being dragged away during teleportation is better with a faster response time.


2.4 The contrast ratio is one of the crucial TFT display screen parameters

A higher contrast ratio makes the image appear more layered and differentiates light from dark, making it easier for the user to view the image in dimly lit environments. The ideal ranges for the TFT display screen's brightness and contrast ratio are 40–60 and 60–80, respectively. To improve the visual effects when playing games, it is advised to set the brightness and contrast to 80–100. Related product: 2.8 Inch High Brightness Lcd Display.


2.5 The crucial TFT display screen parameters ——HDR

The term high dynamic range (HDR) describes a method of dynamically presenting contrast and color accuracy based on the scene. For example, in a movie gamer in a dark scene, the majority of the TFT display panel is black, but certain dark scenes are visible on the TFT display with HDR, which is likely the so-called bright black. The TFT display screen needs to have the appropriate hardware design, which impacts price and performance, to implement HDR technology.

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